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01-VI-2015
HELP CENTER (D4B + D4T)

3. Tuning procedure

3.1  Preparation of the motorcycle

Before starting any tuning, in which you are going to modify the engine control system, you need to:

  • Check the functions of the motorcycle systems using the Global Test diagnostic function of the Diag4Bike™  and perform a detailed check of the EFI system through measured parameters. A fault in any motorcycle control module may compromise communication via the diagnostic line used for the tuning operations.
  • Check for proper function of spark plugs by checking flash-over voltage, which must be below 10 kV at idle RPM. If you don't have ability to measure this and the mileage of plugs is over 5,000 kilometres (3,000 miles), carry out preventive replacement. While checking the plugs, check also the ignition cables and ignition module.
  • Replace or wash the air filter.
  • Ensure reliable power supply to the dash board network by checking the battery of the motorcycle. If low battery capacity is identified, replace the battery or provide continuous external charging.
  • Check whether any tuning device has been mounted and if so, it must be disconnected from the EFI control module, especially from the diagnostic line.
  • Check whether tuning of the model and year of manufacture is supported by the Diag4Tune™ tool. Ověření – (link na aktuální tabulku)
  • Insert the tuning dongle to the USB connector (Tuning DongleTuning Dongle
    Tuning Dongle
    )
Tuning dongle AFR Tuning Monitor
Tuning dongle AFR Tuning Monitor

Multi-Diag Handy Plus (Oscilloscope)

Tuning Dongle

If you are going to perform measurement of VE maps:


3.2  Pairing & Backup

This operation performs pairing of the motocycle to the tuning dongle (Tuning Dongle) while backing up the original EFI status so it can be restored at any time. If you start the tuning by the pairing procedure and the connected motorcycle (model + year) is not yet supported by the Diag4Tune tool, the system does not perform pairing and the tuning dongle remains empty. The operator will obviously be informed.

 The tuning dongle can only be paired to one bike. After pairing, its content cannot be changed.

After a successful pairing, the Pairing&Backup icon  changes to RESTORE

Screen Shot: Pairing & Backup Screen Shot: Pairing & Backup
Icon for pairing of the motocycle (Pairing and Backup) Icon for restoration to the original condition of the motorcycle (Restore)

Demo movie

Go to page Flash video
  September 1, 2013 (2.5 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

3.3  Easy mode

Easy Mode is a tool for easy modification of the mixing ratio (AFR). As the current VE maps are not correctly set it is also not possible to set the absolute values of the mixing ratio - AFR. Therefore, the Easy Mode allows you to change (in %) the current mixing ratio in all operating modes of the engine.

This is actually a direct replacement for electronic modules from different manufacturers which for the same purpose must be laboriously mounted on the motorcycle while having to rely on the weather and mechanical resistance of the piggyback (piggyback) is corresponding to the use on a Harley-Davidson motorcycle. In addition, this piggyback (piggyback) is a clear sign of any engine modification for any MOT test.

Screen Shot: Easy mode  
Icon for easy modification of the mixing ratio  

Demo movie

Go to page Flash video
  September 1, 2013 (2.7 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

3.4  VE Measurement

3.4.1  Bench test

Screen Shot: Bench test Screen Shot: VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
Icon for Bench test Screen Shot: VE Measurement  

Upon the start of the operation, a map of measurements is displayed which clearly shows the number of measurements in each cell of the map. The header of the map shows the current measured values. The task of the operator who controls the motorcycle at the station and load characteristics of the station is to gradually perform a sufficient number of measurements in each cell of the measuring map. The map is provided with an inactive mask (gray cells). These cells are not included in the measurement. The area of the current engine mode is clearly indicated with the cursor. The minimum number of measurements is 7 (a light green cell) and the optimum number is at least 15 measurements (green cell).

The default sampling rate of the measurement is set to 0.5 sec. The measurement control is similar to a recorder. Therefore, you can start, pause or stop the recording, (recording of measurements). It is obvious that the system does not start storing the measurements until the engine has reached the operating temperature, or it leaves the range during the measurement.

If the engine temperature is lower than required, the color of the reading is blue and flashes. The temperature reading turns red if you exceed the maximum permitted temperature for the measurement. Temperature is measured at the engine cylinder.

Operating temperature of the Evolution engine (Sportster): 140-190 °C / 284-374 °F Operating temperature of the Twin Cam engine (Dyna, Softail and Touring mod.) 80-140 °C / 176-284 °F

The RPM reading also changes its color dynamically. By default, it turns red when the engine RPM exceeds the limit of measurement.

RPM limit = (RPM of the limiter) - 100 min -1

The time and efficiency of the measurement is mainly determined by the experience of the operator. When measuring on a power bench Smart Bench (ATAL product - see below) the total coverage of the VE maps takes 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the structure of the maps.

The following maps are displayed as a result of the VE measurement:

  • Original VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • New (measured) VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • Differential VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • AFR maps of the measurements (the control maps measured with a target value of AFR = 13.5)
  • A map showing the number of measurement samples  

The system then offers to store the new VE maps to your PC and to the EFI system of the motorcycle. You should accept this unless the measurement contains an evident error. After this operation, you have new VE maps stored in the EFI.

To decide on further procedure, you need to evaluate the differential VE maps. If the difference in VE is less than 5%, you can finish the measurement and regard the result as final. If there are more differences in VE exceeding 5%, it is necessary to repeat the measurements. The new VE maps from the first measurement will now be used as default VE maps. From experience, it is usually necessary to use two measuring steps for optimal setting of new VE maps.

For the measurements it is possible to use any dynamometer. ATAL is currently developing the Bench test a power bench called Smart Bench which includes the program Diag4Power.

Smart Power Bench - a power bench for the diagnostics and tuning of motorcycles

To view the latest leaflet, refer to www.diag4bike.eu ( com), Section Harley-Davidson

Smart Power Bench - a power bench for the diagnostics and tuning of motorcycles

Smart Bench has multiple uses. The basis of its function is to simulate the load corresponding to driving on the road. Regarding diagnostics, it is an ideal and user-friendly tool for monitoring of the engine function and its accessories under load.

Smart Bench uses roller driven fans used as a dynamic load to simulate the aerodynamic drag. Fans are also used as a source of cooling air for the tested engine. In most cases there is no need for additional cooling of the motor during the measurement of VE maps. This bench can also be successfully used to measure VE maps during the Bench Test described here. The test bench does not require any control during the measurement. The measurements are performed in steady and acceleration modes, at constant throttle opening.

 Adjusting the throttle is done using a (Throttle Control Limiter)

Throttle Control Limiter Throttle Control Limiter
Throttle Control Limiter Throttle Control Limiter

Demo movie

Go to page Flash video
  September 2, 2013 (18.8 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
  video  

In addition, Smart Bench can very quickly and efficiently measure the external characteristics of power and torque depending on the engine RPM (relative to the crankshaft of the engine) and also parametric characteristics for different throttle opening.

 

3.4.2  Road test

Screen Shot: Road test  
Icon for Road Test  

Before the start of Road Test, it is necessary to install on the motorcycle and mechanically secure the AFR Tuning monitor with the Diag4Bike™  communication interface. After the start of the measuring operation of Road Test the mode communication interface is set to the Road Test mode. You can then disconnect the USB communication link from the PC and start the road test.

The aim is to use gradually each of the driving modes. Transitions between the modes should be gradual. You should bear in mind sampling which is identical to the Bench Test. Obviously, the result and the measurement range is dependent on the operator - the driver. Optimal space for this test is a safe and sufficient asphalt surface (preferably airport) or a road with little traffic.

An experienced operator is able to cover the maps within about one hour. The total memory capacity for the road test is 32 hours of drive, or a period during which the ignition is on.

The following maps are displayed as a result of the VE measurement:

  • Original VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • New (measured) VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • Differential VE maps (front and rear cylinder)
  • AFR maps of the measurements (the control maps measured with a target value of AFR = 13.5)
  • A map showing the number of measurement samples

The system then offers to store the new VE maps to your PC and to the EFI system of the motorcycle. You should accept this unless the measurement contains an evident error. After this operation, you have new VE maps stored in the EFI.

To decide on further procedure, you need to evaluate the differential VE maps. If the difference in VE is less than 5%, you can finish the measurement and regard the result as final. If there are more differences in VE exceeding 5%, it is necessary to repeat the measurements. The new VE maps from the first measurement will now be used as default VE maps. From experience, it is usually necessary to use two measuring steps for optimal setting of new VE maps.

Demo movie

Go to page Flash video
  September 30, 2013 (25.3 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

 

3.4.3  VE Analysis test

Screen Shot: VE Analysis test  
Icon VE Analysis test  

This is an upcoming feature which will allow you to compare any two selected VE measurements. When measuring VE in two steps, it is possible to use this function, for example, to view the final difference between the original condition and the result of the second measurement.


3.5 Advanced mode

Screen Shot: Advanced mode video
Video (Advanced mode) is hosted on YouTube
 
 
 
Icon for modification of all available maps (Advanced mode)

Advanced Mode is a tool to modify all available maps in this mode. This includes the AFR map, VE maps, ignition advance maps and RPM limiter. The use of the Advanced Mode for the optimisation of the fuel maps is a logical continuation of the VE measurements, you have actually measured how the engine (each of its cylinder)"breathes".

Advanced mode allows you to manually change VE values, but there is no reason for it if you have measured and set the new current VE maps.

Having followed the proper process of fuel maps optimisation, the next step is to set the second important part of the fuel maps - the AFR map, i.e. the map of the target AFR values which is now the guiding principle for the EFI system to calculate fuel injection and therefore the actual AFR of the engine.

Screen Shot: AN example (A) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200) An example of a typical AFR map (XL 1200) map is shown on the left . The values of 14.6 are the engine modes where the EFI system sets stoichiometric ratio of the combustion controlled by built-in lambda sensors.
AN example (A) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200)

Lower AFR (richer mixture) is set only for extreme modes (high RPM and full throttle, MAP close to 100 kPa). In this case the main reason for using a rich mixture is better cooling of the engine in extreme modes and partly also increased power (as shown below). A relatively rich mixture is also set for closed throttle throughout the entire RPM range (MAP around 20 kPa). In this case, the reason is to suppress back-fire during deceleration. EFI maintains the mixing ratio well above the ignition limit so that the mixture burns out reliably and to prevent its accumulation in the exhaust. If it accumulated in the exhaust, there would necessarily be some random ignition of the mixture in the cylinder which would in turn ignite the unburned mixture in the exhaust with a strong acoustic manifestation.

The marginal modes described in the previous paragraph are not interesting in terms of tuning (unless our goal is to annoy a neighbour or their dog by occasional back-fire to the exhaust). Our region of interest should be the area where the target AFR is set to 14.6, i.e. we should focus on controlling the mixing ratio by closed loop of lambda sensors. This is undoubtedly the best way of control, in terms of engine emissions and more or less in terms of fuel consumption. However, it is obviously not optimal with regard to the achievable torque and engine power, which is illustrated by the following characteristics.

Screen Shot: The pattern of maximum torque of the V-Twin engine, depending on the set AFR  
The pattern of maximum torque of the V-Twin engine, depending on the set AFR

These characteristics show the maximum torque curve of the V-Twin engine (which was always found in the speed range from 2500 to 3000 min-1) depending on the set AFR. The green curve represents the measurement at 100% throttle opening. The orange curve represents the maximum torque pattern in continuous throttle opening to 60%. The black curve shows the average value. The results of the measurement show that torque characteristics can be increased merely by appropriate setting of AFR.

Further development has led us to the definition of ATAL Dynamic AFR maps. These maps are preset as menu templates on displaying the AFR map (see Demo movie 1). They are based on a compromise adjustment of maps. During road tests, we have defined an area that is used for steady cruising modes with minimal requirements for dynamic transitions. In these modes, it is not necessary to increase the torque characteristics and more focus is on the economy of operation, and thus optimal emission engine behaviour.

These modes generally range in the area defined by the MAP up to 60 kPa. In this case therefore, it is desirable to maintain the target AFR at 14.6, i.e. to control the mixing ratio by a closed loop of lambda sensors.

However, a completely different situation is in the area over 70 kPa as defined by MAP. This area represents the dynamic modes (acceleration) where it is desirable to use the maximum potential of the engine at the expense of economy of the operation. In these modes, therefore, the target values of AFR are to be set within the range from 12.5 to 13.5 - see figure below

Screen Shot: AN example (B) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200)  
AN example (B) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200)

As mentioned in the introduction to tuning, the goal of tuning is not only increased performance characteristics. It also includes increased driving comfort. A well-known example is the behaviour of the XL 1200, the Evolution engine with an "open intake and exhaust" during urban cruising at 50 km/h (30 MPH), usually in the 3rd gear. The engine in these modes has occasional ignition gaps, which feels very uncomfortable and can sometimes even compromise driving safety (Slow Cruising Jerking). After much analysis, we have come to a conclusion than this is caused by unstable behaviour of closed control loop of the lambda sensor. As a remedy, to significantly suppress or completely eliminate these negative manifestations of the Evolution engine, it is advisable to set the AFR within the range of 13.5-14 (in the mode mentioned) in order to turn off the closed control loop. Maps equipped with this compensation mode are preset as menu templates as well, when displaying the AFR map (see figure below ). In any case, there is enough space for experiments for tuning operators. It is possible to look for the optimum value of the compensation AFR. We sometimes encounter a similar challenge in the case of the Twin Cam engines.

Screen Shot: AN example (C) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200)  
AN example (C) of a typical AFR map (XL 1200)

Demo movie 1 - Advanced mode Manual

Go to page Flash video
  October 21, 2013 (4.3 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

Demo movie 2 - Advanced mode Dynamic + Slow Cruising Jerking compensation

Go to page Flash video
  October 22, 2013 (2.9 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

3.6 ECM Flash

Screen Shot: ECM Flash  
The icon for quick selection from the prepared maps on PC (ECM Flash)

The ECM Flash procedure is used for rapid selection of the prepared maps on your PC and their downloading (saving) into the engine control module of EFI. This procedure is suitable for road tests (in the field) of the preset maps.

Demo movie

Go to page Flash video
  October 07, 2013 (2.5 MB, swf)
  size video: automatically fit to browser windows
   

3.7 Maps download

Screen Shot: Maps download  
Icon for the download server (Maps download)

This is an upcoming feature that will allow you to use the forthcoming download server of newly defined and measured maps for general use by all users of the Diag4Tune™ tuning system.

Demo movie

under construction


3.8 End of the tuning

After the end of the tuning in which we have modified the installation of lambda sensors and programmed the EFI control module, we need to: 

  1. Uninstall the AFR tuning monitor, if it was used. Pay special attention to refitting the narrow-band (narrow) lambda sensors. Always pay attention to the thread quality of the lambda probes. If the thread is damaged or deformed, it is necessary to renew it. The thread is usually M18x1.5 (metric thread).
  2.  Check the function of the motorcycle system using the Global Test diagnostic function and by performing a detailed check of the EFI system using the measured parameters. It is very likely that errors have been set up of the lambda sensors which had been removed. In such a case, it is a historical error that is to be deleted by the DIAG4BIKE™ diagnostics. Check the function of the lambda sensors by the diagnostics using the parameters measured.